Pathology and laboratory medicine

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Archive for April, 2010

CPD activities

Now that CPD is compulsory in the UK is anyone actually *doing* CPD ?

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Bird flu / iron chelator / picolinic acid

Activity of Picolinic Acid in Combination with the Antiprotozoal Drug
Quinacrine against Mycobacterium avium Complex.
Shimizu T, Tomioka H
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Sep ; 50(9): 3186-8

We studied the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of
picolinic acid (PA) in combination with the antiprotozoal drug
quinacrine against intramacrophage Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC).
Quinacrine significantly potentiated the anti-MAC activity of PA,
suggesting the usefulness of this combination in the clinical control
of MAC infection.

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/HPF slashHPF

What do the slash / and letters H, P, F represent?… in /HPF
Lab Generated Urine Microscopic
Component                    Value      Range
. White Blood Cells Urine    None Seen  0-2 (/HPF)
. Red Blood Cells Urine      None Seen  0-2 (/HPF)
. Squamous Epithelial Cells  None Seen  None Seen- (/HPF)
. Bacteria                   None Seen  None Seen- (/HPF)
. Mucous, Urine              None Seen  None Seen- (/HPF)

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Increased red blood cells / hematocrit / sleep apnea

Soooo .. this seems to .. say .. increased red blood cells are ..
associated with sleep apnea .

So the treatment would .. be .. ?

Would be .. ?

Iron .. reduction .. therapy ..

Heh .. heh ..

Does obstructive sleep apnea increase hematocrit?
Choi JB, Loredo JS, Norman D, Mills PJ, Ancoli-Israel S, Ziegler MG,
Dimsdale JE
Sleep Breath. 2006 Sep ; 10(3): 155-60

This study assessed the relationship between hematocrit levels and
severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and examined how this
relationship was affected by the degree of hypoxia as well as by
possible confounding factors. Two-hundred sixty three subjects (189 men
and 74 women) underwent nocturnal polysomnography with oximetry and had
measurements of hematocrit, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, body
mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), and 24-h urine norepinephrine
(NE). Patients with severe OSA [respiratory disturbance index (RDI)

>30] had significantly higher hematocrit values than patients with mild to moderate OSA or nonapneic controls (p<0.01). However, only one patient had a hematocrit in the range of clinical polycythemia. Hematocrit levels were significantly correlated with BMI, BP, urinary NE, RDI, percent of time spent at oxygen saturation <90%, and with mean oxygen saturation. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that mean oxygen saturation, RDI, and percent of time spent at oxygen saturation <90% were significant predictors of hematocrit level, even after controlling for gender, ethnicity, 24-h urine NE, BMI, and BP (p<0.05). The severity of OSA is significantly associated with increased hematocrit, even after controlling for possible confounding variables. However, nocturnal hypoxemia in OSA does not usually lead to clinical polycythemia.

Definitions of hematocrit on the Web:

The percentage of red blood cells in the blood.

Measure of the volume of red blood cells as a percentage of the total
blood volume. Normal in males is 43-49%, in females 37-43%.

the measurement of the percentage of red blood cells found in a
specific volume of blood.

The percentage of packed red Blood cells found in a unit volume of
whole Blood.

A measure of red blood cells as a percentage of whole blood.

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Iron risk factor in death / thalassemia

Risk factors for death in patients with beta-thalassemia major: results
of a case-control study.
Ceci A, Baiardi P, Catapano M, Felisi M, Cianciulli P, De Sanctis V,
Del Vecchio GC, Magnano C, Meo A, Maggio A
Haematologica. 2006 Sep 7;

This retrospective one to one matched case-control study was aimed at
evaluating risk factors for death in bb-thalassemic patients followed
in Italian centers between 1997 and 2001. The mortality risk was lower
in patients with good compliance to iron chelation therapy and in those
treated with deferiprone.

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Can foul odors actually cause an individual to faint?


I am well aware that extreme pain can cause an individual to faint due
to its effects on his/her autonomic nervous system.

What about odors? I’ve heard that saying "open a can of rotten meat and
the stench will knock you out". Is this true? Can excruciatingly foul
odors result in an autonomic reaction that causes the victim to faint?



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The neuroscience of Vital Points?


I saw fight science on National Geographic about a week ago. There were
several pressure points that got me interested. The solar plexus and
the armpits. Apparently, a hard punch to those areas can cause the
victim to go into shock due to injury of the nerve plexi in those
regions. Something to do with calcium ions, IIRC.

Apparently a blow to the solar plexus or underarm plexi can shock the
victim even if he/she feels little or no pain.

A punch to the solar plexus can stop the heart by sending confusing
signals to the brain. The autonomic nervous system "thinks" the heart
is swelling and therefore tries to decrease the strength of the
heartbeat. In addition, a blow to the guts sends false respiratory
signals to the brain, tricking the autonomic nervous system into
beleiving that the lungs is filled with air.

Apparently the brain between your shoulders is not the only brain you
need to worry about. A blow to any nerve plexus [such as the abdominal
brain] can cause a fatal shock to the visercal nervous system.



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Saturated Triglycerides of Butter Can Cause Sharp Chest Pain


A diet rich in butter combined with lack of aerobic activity causes
saturated triglycerides [triglycerides with all three attached fatty
acids being saturated] to be deposited in the heart’s blood vessels.
This can lead to an angina or MI.

MI = Myocardial Infarction or heart attack

The symptoms of an angina/MI resulting from saturated triglycerides of
butter are similar except for the obvious fact that MI is much more
severe than an angina. MIs are usually much more painful than anginas.

Both anginas and MIs produce the same type of pain [the shooting sharp
pain resulting from A-delta excitation]. However, the pain caused by an
MI is usually more intense than the pain caused by an angina because
more A-delta nociceptors per area are stimulated in an MI than in an

When saturated triglycerides of butter accumulate in the cardiac blood
vessels, they starve the heart of blood supply. That starvation of
heart tissue result in stimulation of A-delta nociceptors nearby. This
causes a shooting sharp pain to be perceived in the sternum’s compact
bones between the 3rd, 4th, and 5th cartilage lines of unions. It feels
as if those bones have "holes being cracked into them".

With or without pain, a heart attack is a potentially fatal situation.
However, the pain caused by A-delta nociception can result in a shock
reaction that can kill in less than a minute.

If all the A-delta nociceptors that give rise to pain in the hard
compact bone tissues between the 3rd, 4th, and 5th cartilage lines of
unions of the sternum are stimulated by the injurious complications of
saturated butter triglycerides, the intense shooting sharp pain would
result in the following fatal conditions:

In such a situation all blood vessels in the body would constrict. The
heart would enter a state of near-total contraction [the contraction
will be almost tonic, IOW nearly a state of adiastole] and not relax
enough to pump effectively. The AV communication would probably remain
normal [i.e. other than being extremely fast and weak, the heartbeat
would be normal]. Pulse and heart beat would not be strong enough to be
felt by anything other than an extremely sensitive EKG. Heart rate
would sky-rocket to almost 500 beats per minute.

Gastrointestinal muscles would also enter a state of tonic spasticity
[much like the heart and blood vessels]. The peristalsis would be
extremely rapid but so weak that the movement of GI contents ceases.

Skin would become cold, pale, and moist due to shock.

Quotes from the above site:

"An A-delta fiber responds to either mechanical stimuli or temperature
stimuli in the painful realm and produces the acute sensation of sharp,
bright pain."

"By contrast, a C fiber can respond to a broad range of painful
stimuli, including mechanical, thermal or metabolic factors. The pain
produced is slow, burning, and long lasting."



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STOP what you’re doing – It doesn’t work! U04I

Get Free Website Traffic For Doing What You
Normally Do Which Is Surf The Web

Falocelisos surelavelaf mobohihafe dagahanula halesorib mocixac lota basaterab .

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Man contracts anthrax / contact with animal carcass

Anthrax outbreak in cattle on Prairies hits record

CALGARY — An anthrax outbreak has risen to record levels in
Saskatchewan and Manitoba where the number of dead animals — most of
them cattle — has jumped dramatically in the past month and officials
are now frantically vaccinating herds to stop the spread of the

As of yesterday, 628 animals have died on 129 properties in
Saskatchewan since the beginning of July, when the bacteria was
discovered in a dead bull in Melfort, northeast of Saskatoon, according
to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

In Manitoba, the numbers are also rising, but not at the same pace. By
yesterday, 18 farms had been quarantined and 124 animals have died.

Sandra Stephens, a Saskatoon-based veterinarian with the agency, said
this is the largest anthrax outbreak on the Prairies since Ottawa began
keeping track in the 1950s.

In the previous six years, Saskatchewan had recorded just five cases of
the illness, while Manitoba counted 43 cases during the same period.

Health officials say anthrax is more of an animal health issue than a
concern to people.

Anthrax can lay dormant in the soil for years — even decades — but
outbreaks have popped up from time to time across the Prairies.

Epidemics can come after heavy rain, which brings spores to the
surface, and during periods of drought because the animals are forced
to graze deep into contaminated ground.

This summer has proved to be a perfect storm of "environmental
conditions," according to the agency.

Farmers across Saskatchewan and Manitoba have spent the summer burning
carcasses of infected animals –cattle, horses, bison, sheep, goats and
other animals — in order to decrease the infection rate. If animals
come into contact with the infected carcasses, they could pick up the

Livestock anthrax is spread neither among live animals nor through the

However, a Melfort-area man contracted a case of skin anthrax in
mid-July. The farmer was treated with antibiotics and made a complete
recovery from the least serious and most common form of the illness.

Saskatchewan’s Chief Medical Health Officer, Ross Findlater, explained
that while anthrax is not transmitted from person to person, skin
anthrax poses a small, theoretical risk of infection from direct
contact with the lesions on another person before an antibiotic regime
has begun.

Farmers are doing what they can to stop the spread. This summer, more
than 250,000 animals have been privately vaccinated and the federal
agency has injected another 18,000 with the vaccine.

About 1,355 animals have been vaccinated by the agency in Manitoba and
while no private figures were available for that province, there is a
similar level of urgency.

"From what I’m hearing, guys are buckling down, getting their herds
vaccinated and trying to ride through it as best they can," Keith
Robertson, executive director of the Manitoba Cattle Producers
Association, told The Canadian Press.

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Low-fat Vegan Diet Rivals Oral Diabetes Medications

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