Pathology and laboratory medicine

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Archive for July, 2010

Breast tumor progression: the clonal theory now challenged. The “portrait” of most breast tumors remains stable during progression from in situ to the metastatic state.

Stable portrait of breast tumors during progression. Data from
biology, pathology, and genetics.

By Marc Lacroix et al. Laboratoire Jean-Claude Heuson de Cancérologie
Mammaire (Breast Cancer Lab), Institut Jules Bordet, Bruxelles
(Brussels), Belgique (Belgium).
Endocrine-Related Cancer 11, 497-523 (2004)

It is widely believed that breast cancer dissemination involves a
succession of clinical and pathological stages starting with carcinoma
in situ, progressing into invasive lesion and culminating in
metastatic disease. Such changes have frequently been attributed to
the sequential acquisition of various alterations in a single cell
followed by clonal selection and expansion, thus leading to
intra-tumor diversity. According to this multi-step view, extensive
genotype and phenotype (marker expression, grade) shift may occur in a
same tumor during progression; this may lead to the coexistence of
molecularly and/or pathologically different areas in a same lesion. An
increasing number of data of various natures appear now to challenge
this conception: only a few distinct "portraits", with relations to
estrogen receptor (ER)-status and grade, may be found among tumors.
Moreover, although undergoing increasing genetic alteration, most
individual lesions largely maintain their phenotype when they evolve
from in situ to the metastatic state. While many of the data presented
here are related to ductal tumors, lobular cancer is also discussed.
Moreover, a discussion on breast tumor stem cells is incorporated.

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Pot changes brain patterns 1 month after use, researchers find

This article says marijuana changes your brain patterns, even more
than one month after you use it. It’s based on a Yale study.
Anti-marijuana advocates are probably going to be happy about this,
since it comes after a string of other studies suggesting there are no
long-term effects…

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Ataxia telangeictasia

DNA Repair (Amst). 2004 Oct 5;3(10):1263-72.  Related Articles, Links  

Iron chelators increase the resistance of Ataxia telangeictasia cells to
oxidative stress.

Shackelford RE, Manuszak RP, Johnson CD, Hellrung DJ, Link CJ, Wang S.

Iowa Cancer Research Foundation, 11043 Aurora Avenue, Urbandale, IA 50322, USA.

Ataxia telangeictasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by
immune dysfunction, genomic instability, chronic oxidative damage, and
increased cancer incidence. Previously, desferal was found to increase the
resistance of A-T, but not normal cells to exogenous oxidative stress in the
colony forming-efficiency assay, suggesting that iron metabolism is
dysregulated in A-T. Since desferal both chelates iron and modulates gene
expression, we tested the effects of apoferritin and the iron chelating
flavonoid quercetin on A-T cell colony-forming ability. We demonstrate that
apoferritin and quercetin increase the ability of A-T cells to form colonies.
We also show that labile iron levels are significantly elevated in
Atm-deficient mouse sera compared to syngeniec wild type mice. Our findings
support a role for labile iron acting as a Fenton catalyst in A-T, contributing
to the chronic oxidative stress seen in this disease. Our findings further
suggest that iron chelators might promote the survival of A-T cells and hence,
individuals with A-T.

PMID: 15336622 [PubMed - in process]


Who loves ya.
Jesus Was A Vegetarian!
Man Is A Herbivore!

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Ovarian cancer / meat consumption

ovarian cancer risk was positively associated with higher consumption of
dietary cholesterol

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Sep;13(9):1521-7.  Related Articles,

A case-control study of diet and the risk of ovarian cancer.

Pan SY, Ugnat AM, Mao Y, Wen SW, Johnson KC, The Canadian Cancer Registries
Epidemiology Research Group.

Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division, Center for Chronic Disease
Prevention and Control, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, 120
Colonnade Road, Locator 6702A, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9.

Epidemiologic studies have suggested that some dietary factors may play a role
in the etiology of ovarian cancer, but the findings have been inconsistent. We
assessed the association of ovarian cancer with dietary factors in a
population-based case-control study in Canada. Diet information was collected
on 442 incident cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed in 1994 to 1997 and 2,135
population controls via a self-administered questionnaire. Compared with women
in the lowest quartile of cholesterol intake, those in the second, third, and
fourth quartiles had a multivariate adjusted odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence
interval (95% CI)] of 1.12 (0.81-1.56), 1.20 (0.85-1.68), and 1.42 (1.03-1.97),
respectively (P for trend = 0.031). Higher egg consumption was also associated
with a nonsignificant increase in ovarian cancer risk. The ORs (95% CIs) for
ovarian cancer were 0.77 (0.60-1.04) and 0.76 (0.56-0.99) among women in the
highest quartile of total vegetable and cruciferous vegetable intake as
compared with women in the lowest quartile. Women who took supplements of
vitamin E, beta-carotene, and B-complex vitamins for >/=10 years had ORs (95%
CIs) of 0.49 (0.30-0.81), 0.31 (0.11-0.91), and 0.61 (0.36-1.05), respectively.
However, we did not observe an association of ovarian cancer risk with dietary
fat intake, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty
acids, protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fruit, dairy products, meat
products, fish, chicken, grain products, nut products, baked desserts,
margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and supplement of multiple vitamins, vitamin A,
vitamin C, calcium, iron, zinc, and selenium. Our findings suggested that
ovarian cancer risk was positively associated with higher consumption of
dietary cholesterol and eggs and inversely associated with higher intake of
total vegetables and cruciferous vegetables and supplementation of vitamin E,
beta-carotene, and B-complex vitamins.

PMID: 15342455 [PubMed - in process]


Who loves ya.
Jesus Was A Vegetarian!
Man Is A Herbivore!

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Sentinal Node Biopsy

I understand that in a sentinal node biopsy for melanoma, the sentinal
node is taken out, sectioned and examined for melanoma.  How is the
melanoma found in these sections?  Is it by appearance?  Is it by the
presence of melanin where it shouldnt be?  What specifically is the
sign of melanoma in these sections?

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Iron accumulation in HIV-infected patients

iron accumulation found in these patients is  caused by unknown mechanisms

Biometals. 2004 Aug;17(4):443-50.  Related Articles, Links  

Effects of AZT on cellular iron homeostasis.

Bozzi A, Brisdelli F, D’Alessandro AM, D’Andrea G, Lizzi AR, Rinaldi AC,
Oratore A.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L’Aquila, Via
Vetoio, Coppito 2, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy. bo…

3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine (AZT), the first chemotherapeutic drug approved by
FDA for treatment of HIV-infected patients and still used in combination
therapy, has been shown to induce, upon prolonged exposure, severe bone marrow
toxicity manifested as anemia, neutropenia and siderosis. These toxic effects
are caused by inhibition of heme synthesis and, as a consequence, transferrin
receptor (TfR) number appears increased and so iron taken up by cells. Since
iron overload can promote the frequency and severity of many infections,
siderosis is viewed as a further burden for AIDS patients. We have previously
demonstrated that AZT-treated K562 cells showed an increase of the number of
TfRs located on the surface of the plasma membrane without affecting their
biosynthesis, but slowing down their endocytotic pathway. In spite of the
higher number of receptors on the plasma-membrane of AZT-treated cells,
intracellular accumulation of iron showed a similar level in control and in
drug-exposed cells. The chelating ability of AZT and of its phosphorylated
derivatives, both in an acellular system and in K562 cells, was also checked.
The results demonstrated that AZT and AZTMP were uneffective as iron chelators,
while AZTTP displayed a significant capacity to remove iron from transferrin
(Tf). Our results suggest that AZT may be not directly involved in the iron
overloading observed upon its prolonged use in AIDS therapy. The iron
accumulation found in these patients is instead caused by other unknown
mechanisms that need further studies to be clarified.

PMID: 15259365 [PubMed - in process]


Who loves ya.
Jesus Was A Vegetarian!
Man Is A Herbivore!

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Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage.

 Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1019:285-8.  Related Articles, Links  

Lysosomal redox-active iron is important for oxidative stress-induced DNA

Kurz T, Leake A, von Zglinicki T, Brunk UT.

School of Clinical Medical Sciences-Gerontology, University of Newcastle upon
Tyne, Newcastle General Hospital, Henry Wellcome Laboratory for Biogerontology
Research, NE4 6BE, United Kingdom. tino.k…

Data show that specifically chelating lysosomal redox-active iron can prevent
most H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. Lysosomes seem to contain the major pool of
redox-active labile iron within the cell. Under oxidative stress conditions,
this iron may then relocate to the nucleus and play an important role for DNA
damage by taking part in Fenton reactions.

PMID: 15247030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Who loves ya.
Jesus Was A Vegetarian!
Man Is A Herbivore!

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Microscope and acetone vaporizer FA

This is a one time posting. I hope your group permits this. If not

Small Wonder analysis kit with acetone vaporizer…

Olympus CH-2 T…

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Re: The HUMAN SKULL Embedded in a boulder

So Maria Chiquita Alvarez sez to me, they sez:

> On Wed, 28 Jul 2004 17:07:18 -0500, Carl Wilson <cwilson2…>
> wrote:

>>Belonged to Ed Conrad

> Lame!

> "But the center of something is always in the center."

>  Michael Davis <mdavi…>

Funny how Carl shows up on usenet a day after I start poasting again, but he
claims *I’m* "obsessed" with *him*.

I just think his flailing attempts at inflating his importance and overall
credibility are funnier than a hell of a lot of forms of entertainment.

- Hide quoted text — Show quoted text -

> > > > > > You have no brain for me to bash, stupid doper. – Mike Davis

> > > > > I see you choose your opponents wisely, then. – Me

> > > > Like shooting fish in a barrel. – Mike Davis

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various vitreoretinal diseases / iron

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2004 Jun;52(2):145-8.  Related Articles, Links  

Trace elements iron, copper and zinc in vitreous of patients with various
vitreoretinal diseases.

Konerirajapuram NS, Coral K, Punitham R, Sharma T, Kasinathan N,
Sivaramakrishnan R.

Biochemistry Research Department, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India.

PURPOSE: To measure the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc in human
vitreous and to interpret their levels with various vitreoretinal diseases like
proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign
body, Eales’ disease and macular hole. METHODS: Undiluted vitreous fluid
collected during pars plana vitrectomy was used to measure trace elements using
an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS: The level of vitreous iron
increased threefold in Eales’ disease (1.85 +/- 0.36 pg/ml), 2.5-fold in
proliferative diabetic retinopathy (1.534 +/- 0.17 pg/ml) and 2.3-fold in eyes
with intraocular foreign body (1.341 +/- 0.25 pg/ml) when compared with macular
hole (0.588 +/- 0.16 pg/ml). This was statistically significant (P < 0.05).
Zinc was found to be low in Eales’ disease (0.57 +/- 0.22 pg/ ml) when compared
with other groups, though the difference was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: The increased level of iron with decreased zinc content in Eales’
disease confirms the earlier reported oxidative stress mechanism for the
disease. In proliferative diabetic retinopathy and intraocular foreign body the
level of iron increases. This is undesirable as iron can augment glycoxidation,
which can lead to increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, in turn causing
vitreous liquefaction, posterior vitreous detachment and ultimately retinal
detachment and vision loss.

PMID: 15283220 [PubMed - in process]


Who loves ya.
Jesus Was A Vegetarian!
Man Is A Herbivore!

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