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Archive for November, 2012

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT BREAST IMPLANTS ~www.center4policy.org

http://www.cpr4womenandfamilies.org/implantfacts.html

CPR4Wa…@aol.com wrote:

Dear Friends,  We just put this new article on our website, in the breast
implant section

 (The article has footnotes, which don’t come out on the copy here.) We
hope  you’ll visit our website, and take a look around at all the other
"news you  can use" too.

Best wishes,  Diana Zuckerman, Ph.D.
Executive Director National Center for Policy Research for Women and Families
<www.center4policy.org> www.center4policy.org  

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT BREAST IMPLANTS
BY DIANA ZUCKERMAN, PH.D. AND RACHAEL FLYNN, MPH  

More women are getting breast implants than ever before

In 2000, 203,310  women underwent breast implant surgery for augmentation
, and 82,975 women  underwent breast implant surgery for reconstruction
after mastectomy in 1999  (the most recent statistics available)

 Those numbers have been increasing  each year; in fact, the number of
women and teenage girls who underwent  augmentation surgery more than
doubled between 1997 and 2000 (101,176 in 1997  vs. 203,310 in 2000)

 The dramatic increase in breast implant surgery does not necessarily
reflect  a similarly dramatic increase in the number of women with breast
implants,  however

Many women who undergo surgery are replacing old implants that have
broken or caused problems; some women report as many as ten or more
surgeries  as their implants are replaced over the years

There are no available  statistics on how many women undergo their first
breast implant surgery every  year

Breast implants are widely advertised, but the risks are controversial
and  not widely known

The purpose of this summary is to provide information  about what is known
and not known about the risks of breast implants

The Role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)  Breast implants were
first sold in the 1960′s, but sales were relatively slow  until the 1980′s

By 1990, almost one million women had breast implants, but  there were no
published studies about their safety, and the FDA had never  approved them

Finally, in 1991, the FDA required the manufacturers of  breast implants
to submit safety studies

Unfortunately, the studies were   inadequate, and the FDA could not
conclude whether or not the implants were  safe or effective

 In 2000, the FDA reviewed the safety of saline-filled breast implants for
the  first time

Saline implants have a silicone outer envelope and are filled  with salt water

The FDA required studies of local complications, such as  pain, infection,
hardening, and the need for additional surgery

They did  not require studies of other health problems

Despite extremely high  complication rates during the first three years
(approximately three out of  four reconstruction patients and almost half
of first-time augmentation  patients), the FDA approved saline implants.
As part of the approval process,  the FDA has made information about the
risks of breast implants more  available

A consumer handbook and a brochure with photographs of common
complications are available for free at 1-800-463-6332 or online at
www.fda.gov/CDRH/breastimplants

Silicone gel-filled breast implants have never been approved as safe or
effective by the FDA

In 1992, the FDA limited their availability to  clinical trials, primarily
for women who have mastectomies, breast  deformities, or who want to
replace a gel implant that was put in for  augmentation prior to these
restrictions

Currently, women can also receive  gel implants for first-time
augmentation as part of clinical trials

Any  woman who has had implant surgery with silicone gel implants since
1992 is  required to be regularly evaluated by her plastic surgeon as part
of the  study, in order to provide safety data that will help all women
with gel  implants

 Types of Implants  In addition to silicone and saline implants, three
other kinds of implants  were available in recent years, primarily outside
the U.S.: Trilucent  implants, and Novagold and PIP hydrogel implants

 Although never approved  as safe in the U.S., these implants were
vigorously promoted by plastic  surgeons and in women’s magazines as a
"natural" and safer alternative to  silicone or saline implants

Clinical trials, however, were apparently never  conducted on humans with
these implants. ,  , 6  Trilucent breast implants, which have a soybean
oil-based filler, were  designed to interfere less with mammograms than
saline or silicone implants

 However, in 2000 they were removed from the market when serious problems
were  reported

The soya oil implants were found to cause serious infections, with
breasts sometimes becoming very red and painful

In some cases, leaking  soybean oil had emulsified and turned rancid

 Moreover, the Trilucent  implant filler was found to break down into
chemicals known as aldehydes

 Aldehydes are genotoxic, which means that they can alter DNA and
potentially  cause increased cancer risk or reproductive toxicity

Because implant  leakage or rupture would lead to increased exposure to
these genotoxic  products, women were advised to avoid pregnancy until
their Trilucent breast  implants were removed

It was also recommended that breastfeeding be avoided  because the toxic
chemical could migrate from the implants to the milk

 Novagold and PIP Hydrogel implants were also removed from the market in 2000

 Hydrogel, a plastic material that swells in water, is used in other
products, such as contact lenses, medicines, surgical dressings, and food

 These implants were banned as a precautionary measure because of
inadequacies  in the manufacturers’ safety assessments of the hydrogel
fillings

 Specifically, government investigators found a lack of long-term
toxicity  data or clinical follow-up, methodological flaws in some of the
pre-clinical  tests, and pathological changes in a study of rabbits.4, 5
The removal of these three kinds of implants from the market, after they
had  been enthusiastically praised by doctors and patients, serves as a
reminder  that the long-term risks of implants are not always obvious
during the first  few years of use

That is why studies of the risks of long-term use are  essential to
establish the safety of implants

 Health and Cosmetic Risks  All surgery for breast implants, and all
breast implants currently for sale,  have certain risks, regardless of
what they are made of. This fact sheet  includes information that women
should be aware of if they are considering  breast implants, or
considering removing or replacing older implants

Surgical Risks: Surgical risks include the risk of infection, hematoma
(blood  or tissue fluid collecting around an implant), the risk that one
or both of  the implants will have to be removed (requiring additional
surgery), and the  costs of repeated surgeries if the implants are
replaced

Breast Implants Rupture: All breast implants will eventually break, but it
is  not known how many years the breast implants that are currently on the
market  will last

Studies of silicone breast implants suggest that most implants  last 7-12
years, but some break during the first few months or years, and  some last
more than 15 years

In a study conducted by researchers at the  FDA, most women had at least
one broken implant within 15 years, and the  likelihood of rupture tends
to increase over time

 Silicone migrated  outside of the breast capsule for 21% of the women who
had broken implants,  even though most women were unaware that this had
happened

Short-term  studies of today’s saline implants suggest that between 3-9%
break within the  first 3 years

     Local Complications: There are other well-documented "local
complications"  that can result from breast implants

For example, some women lose  sensitivity in their breasts, and others
become overly sensitive; these  problems can interfere with sexual
intimacy

The cosmetic outcome is  sometimes very disappointing, with breasts
looking or feeling unnatural or  asymmetrical, or the saline making a
"sloshing sound."   All implants are "foreign bodies" and the woman’s body
reacts by forming a  capsule of scar tissue around the implants that can
become too tight for the  implant

If that occurs, the breasts can become very hard, misshapen, and  cause
mild discomfort or severe pain

Some women who have breastfed compare  the feeling to being overly full of
milk and unable to nurse for many, many  hours

 Autoimmune Disease: Although the epidemiological studies have not proved
that  autoimmune disease is caused by breast implants, several European
studies  have indicated that breast surgery (whether for breast implants
or to reduce  the size of breasts) may be associated with an increased
risk of neurological  or autoimmune disease. ,    If those diseases (such
as scleroderma and  rheumatoid arthritis) were related to breast surgery,
they would be a risk  associated with all breast implants, regardless of
what they are made of

  Most research has focused on autoimmune or connective-tissue diseases
studied  women who have had implants for a relatively short period of
time, ranging  from a few months to a few years

These studies are the basis for statements  regarding the lack of evidence
that implants cause systemic disease, which  have been made by the
Institute of Medicine, Judge Pointer’s scientific  panel, and in the New
England Journal of Medicine. , ,   Since  connective-tissue and
auto-immune diseases may take years to develop and to  be diagnosed,
studies that include women who had implants for just a few  months or
years can not determine whether or not breast implants increase the
long-term risks of getting these diseases

For that reason, any conclusions  about the safety of implants in terms of
systemic disease are premature

Almost two years after the widely-cited Institute of Medicine report was
published, a new study conducted by FDA scientists found a statistically
significant link between implants and

.
posted by admin in Uncategorized and have Comment (1)

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT BREAST IMPLANTS ~www.center4policy.org

http://www.cpr4womenandfamilies.org/implantfacts.html

CPR4Wa…@aol.com wrote:

Dear Friends,  We just put this new article on our website, in the breast
implant section

 (The article has footnotes, which don’t come out on the copy here.) We
hope  you’ll visit our website, and take a look around at all the other
"news you  can use" too.

Best wishes,  Diana Zuckerman, Ph.D.
Executive Director National Center for Policy Research for Women and Families
<www.center4policy.org> www.center4policy.org  

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT BREAST IMPLANTS
BY DIANA ZUCKERMAN, PH.D. AND RACHAEL FLYNN, MPH  

More women are getting breast implants than ever before

In 2000, 203,310  women underwent breast implant surgery for augmentation
, and 82,975 women  underwent breast implant surgery for reconstruction
after mastectomy in 1999  (the most recent statistics available)

 Those numbers have been increasing  each year; in fact, the number of
women and teenage girls who underwent  augmentation surgery more than
doubled between 1997 and 2000 (101,176 in 1997  vs. 203,310 in 2000)

 The dramatic increase in breast implant surgery does not necessarily
reflect  a similarly dramatic increase in the number of women with breast
implants,  however

Many women who undergo surgery are replacing old implants that have
broken or caused problems; some women report as many as ten or more
surgeries  as their implants are replaced over the years

There are no available  statistics on how many women undergo their first
breast implant surgery every  year

Breast implants are widely advertised, but the risks are controversial
and  not widely known

The purpose of this summary is to provide information  about what is known
and not known about the risks of breast implants

The Role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)  Breast implants were
first sold in the 1960′s, but sales were relatively slow  until the 1980′s

By 1990, almost one million women had breast implants, but  there were no
published studies about their safety, and the FDA had never  approved them

Finally, in 1991, the FDA required the manufacturers of  breast implants
to submit safety studies

Unfortunately, the studies were   inadequate, and the FDA could not
conclude whether or not the implants were  safe or effective

 In 2000, the FDA reviewed the safety of saline-filled breast implants for
the  first time

Saline implants have a silicone outer envelope and are filled  with salt water

The FDA required studies of local complications, such as  pain, infection,
hardening, and the need for additional surgery

They did  not require studies of other health problems

Despite extremely high  complication rates during the first three years
(approximately three out of  four reconstruction patients and almost half
of first-time augmentation  patients), the FDA approved saline implants.
As part of the approval process,  the FDA has made information about the
risks of breast implants more  available

A consumer handbook and a brochure with photographs of common
complications are available for free at 1-800-463-6332 or online at
www.fda.gov/CDRH/breastimplants

Silicone gel-filled breast implants have never been approved as safe or
effective by the FDA

In 1992, the FDA limited their availability to  clinical trials, primarily
for women who have mastectomies, breast  deformities, or who want to
replace a gel implant that was put in for  augmentation prior to these
restrictions

Currently, women can also receive  gel implants for first-time
augmentation as part of clinical trials

Any  woman who has had implant surgery with silicone gel implants since
1992 is  required to be regularly evaluated by her plastic surgeon as part
of the  study, in order to provide safety data that will help all women
with gel  implants

 Types of Implants  In addition to silicone and saline implants, three
other kinds of implants  were available in recent years, primarily outside
the U.S.: Trilucent  implants, and Novagold and PIP hydrogel implants

 Although never approved  as safe in the U.S., these implants were
vigorously promoted by plastic  surgeons and in women’s magazines as a
"natural" and safer alternative to  silicone or saline implants

Clinical trials, however, were apparently never  conducted on humans with
these implants. ,  , 6  Trilucent breast implants, which have a soybean
oil-based filler, were  designed to interfere less with mammograms than
saline or silicone implants

 However, in 2000 they were removed from the market when serious problems
were  reported

The soya oil implants were found to cause serious infections, with
breasts sometimes becoming very red and painful

In some cases, leaking  soybean oil had emulsified and turned rancid

 Moreover, the Trilucent  implant filler was found to break down into
chemicals known as aldehydes

 Aldehydes are genotoxic, which means that they can alter DNA and
potentially  cause increased cancer risk or reproductive toxicity

Because implant  leakage or rupture would lead to increased exposure to
these genotoxic  products, women were advised to avoid pregnancy until
their Trilucent breast  implants were removed

It was also recommended that breastfeeding be avoided  because the toxic
chemical could migrate from the implants to the milk

 Novagold and PIP Hydrogel implants were also removed from the market in 2000

 Hydrogel, a plastic material that swells in water, is used in other
products, such as contact lenses, medicines, surgical dressings, and food

 These implants were banned as a precautionary measure because of
inadequacies  in the manufacturers’ safety assessments of the hydrogel
fillings

 Specifically, government investigators found a lack of long-term
toxicity  data or clinical follow-up, methodological flaws in some of the
pre-clinical  tests, and pathological changes in a study of rabbits.4, 5
The removal of these three kinds of implants from the market, after they
had  been enthusiastically praised by doctors and patients, serves as a
reminder  that the long-term risks of implants are not always obvious
during the first  few years of use

That is why studies of the risks of long-term use are  essential to
establish the safety of implants

 Health and Cosmetic Risks  All surgery for breast implants, and all
breast implants currently for sale,  have certain risks, regardless of
what they are made of. This fact sheet  includes information that women
should be aware of if they are considering  breast implants, or
considering removing or replacing older implants

Surgical Risks: Surgical risks include the risk of infection, hematoma
(blood  or tissue fluid collecting around an implant), the risk that one
or both of  the implants will have to be removed (requiring additional
surgery), and the  costs of repeated surgeries if the implants are
replaced

Breast Implants Rupture: All breast implants will eventually break, but it
is  not known how many years the breast implants that are currently on the
market  will last

Studies of silicone breast implants suggest that most implants  last 7-12
years, but some break during the first few months or years, and  some last
more than 15 years

In a study conducted by researchers at the  FDA, most women had at least
one broken implant within 15 years, and the  likelihood of rupture tends
to increase over time

 Silicone migrated  outside of the breast capsule for 21% of the women who
had broken implants,  even though most women were unaware that this had
happened

Short-term  studies of today’s saline implants suggest that between 3-9%
break within the  first 3 years

     Local Complications: There are other well-documented "local
complications"  that can result from breast implants

For example, some women lose  sensitivity in their breasts, and others
become overly sensitive; these  problems can interfere with sexual
intimacy

The cosmetic outcome is  sometimes very disappointing, with breasts
looking or feeling unnatural or  asymmetrical, or the saline making a
"sloshing sound."   All implants are "foreign bodies" and the woman’s body
reacts by forming a  capsule of scar tissue around the implants that can
become too tight for the  implant

If that occurs, the breasts can become very hard, misshapen, and  cause
mild discomfort or severe pain

Some women who have breastfed compare  the feeling to being overly full of
milk and unable to nurse for many, many  hours

 Autoimmune Disease: Although the epidemiological studies have not proved
that  autoimmune disease is caused by breast implants, several European
studies  have indicated that breast surgery (whether for breast implants
or to reduce  the size of breasts) may be associated with an increased
risk of neurological  or autoimmune disease. ,    If those diseases (such
as scleroderma and  rheumatoid arthritis) were related to breast surgery,
they would be a risk  associated with all breast implants, regardless of
what they are made of

  Most research has focused on autoimmune or connective-tissue diseases
studied  women who have had implants for a relatively short period of
time, ranging  from a few months to a few years

These studies are the basis for statements  regarding the lack of evidence
that implants cause systemic disease, which  have been made by the
Institute of Medicine, Judge Pointer’s scientific  panel, and in the New
England Journal of Medicine. , ,   Since  connective-tissue and
auto-immune diseases may take years to develop and to  be diagnosed,
studies that include women who had implants for just a few  months or
years can not determine whether or not breast implants increase the
long-term risks of getting these diseases

For that reason, any conclusions  about the safety of implants in terms of
systemic disease are premature

Almost two years after the widely-cited Institute of Medicine report was
published, a new study conducted by FDA scientists found a statistically
significant link between implants and

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have Comment (1)

The medical specialty: Pathology

Hello, I’m a med student at the U of Chicago who is seriously considering
pathology as a specialty choice.  I was wondering if there are any
pathologists out there who would be willing to talk to me about why they
chose pathology, etc.

Thank You
Jim
japel…@midway.uchicago.edu

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have Comments (9)

First ever online course on ayurveda to be launched

As the first initiative of its kind for the propagation of "Ayurveda"
alternative medicine in a modern scientific method of study,
saffronsoul.com of India and the University of Pune (India) will
launch an online course in "Ayurveda" this summer.

Saffronsoul.com’s online Ayurveda course is the foremost resourse for
individuals preferring to learn Ayurveda. Saffronsoul has compliled an
abundant amount of information related to an ever-expanding science of
Ayurveda.

The online course in "Ayurveda," affiliated & accredited to University
of Pune, is intended for:
a.. Healthcare professionals, who want to upgrade and deepen their
knowledge in
    their fields of specialization or widen their knowledge into the
field of
    Ayurveda.
b.. Professionals and lifelong learners interested in taking
continuous
    education courses.

For more information about the launch of this online class, please
contact Sudhir Nayak at saffronsoul.com by email at
e…@saffronsoul.com or by telephone in India at 91 022 436 4113

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have No Comments

QUERY: Plasma cells, Neutrophils, Rheumatoid arthritis.

Hi, I’m a medical student wondering if someone would be kind to help me with
a couple of questions concerning rheumatoid arthritis.

In rheumatoid arthritis, plasma cells are found in the synovial membrane
while neutrophils are found in the synovial fluid.

———————
Query = Why arn’t plasma cells found in the synovial fluid, and why arn’t
neutrophils found in the synovial membrane?
———————

(I remember seeing some kind of postulated explanation somwehere but can’t
remember exactly what it was. Here it is:
Plasma cells target certain type of collagens present only in the synovial
membrane not in the fluid. Therefore plasma cells are found only in the
membrane.
Defective plasma cells release rheumatoid factors (antibodies that attack
host cell) into the synovial fluid and circulation. Immune complexes are
formed. Neutrophils target those immune complexes in the synoveal fluid,
explaining why neutrophils are in the fluid.)

Thanks a lot.

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have No Comments

Test

test

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have No Comments

Articles of Interest

ARTICLES (Some translated into Spanish) of General Interest, Historical,
Scientific and Medical. Write for available list and prices:
smi…@west.net.

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have No Comments

Clinical Lab

MONOCLONAL ANTISERA (ABO) FOR BLOOD TYPING plus …
CHEMISTRY REAGENTS FOR THE CLINICAL LABORATORY
For a  FULL LIST of products, color photos and prices please contact:
smi…@west.net

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have No Comments

The medical specialty: Pathology

Hello, I’m a med student at the U of Chicago who is seriously considering
pathology as a specialty choice.  I was wondering if there are any
pathologists out there who would be willing to talk to me about why they
chose pathology, etc.

Thank You
Jim
japel…@midway.uchicago.edu

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have Comments (9)

First ever online course on ayurveda to be launched

As the first initiative of its kind for the propagation of "Ayurveda"
alternative medicine in a modern scientific method of study,
saffronsoul.com of India and the University of Pune (India) will
launch an online course in "Ayurveda" this summer.

Saffronsoul.com’s online Ayurveda course is the foremost resourse for
individuals preferring to learn Ayurveda. Saffronsoul has compliled an
abundant amount of information related to an ever-expanding science of
Ayurveda.

The online course in "Ayurveda," affiliated & accredited to University
of Pune, is intended for:
a.. Healthcare professionals, who want to upgrade and deepen their
knowledge in
    their fields of specialization or widen their knowledge into the
field of
    Ayurveda.
b.. Professionals and lifelong learners interested in taking
continuous
    education courses.

For more information about the launch of this online class, please
contact Sudhir Nayak at saffronsoul.com by email at
e…@saffronsoul.com or by telephone in India at 91 022 436 4113

posted by admin in Uncategorized and have No Comments